Dedicated to the Passionate Pursuit of the Glory of God.

Puritan Catechism Question of the Week
Q 16. Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?
A. The fall brought mankind into a state of sin and misery.

Name: Mike
Location: California, United States
See my complete profile

Wednesday, November 30, 2005

Free CD by John Piper

is now offering free CDs by John Piper. A special thanks should also be given to Desiring God ministry for providing the material. The CDs are free except for a $5 shipping fee. Having listened to two of the CDs, I can assure you that they are all worth the 5 dollars. I believe that currently you may only get 1 CD.

Here are the four options:

John Piper's TULIP Seminar &
Sermons Series Romans 7-9

I advise against this one since Piper's sermons on Romans are free of charge already at Desiring God.

Men of Whom The World Was Not Worthy
These are the biographies for the Bethlehem Pastors conference from 1988-2005. This is the one that I got and I am very happy with it.

History of the Reformation by Tom Browning MP3 CD & Life Together: What is a Reformed Church?
I have listened to the Reformation History by Browning portion of the CD and found it very valuable.

Three of John Piper's most valuable Sermon Series.
With Bonus Sermons on the Pleasures of God NEW!
This has a total of 28 sermons on it. Since Piper is almost always fantastic, I am sure that this is no exception.

Also, as always is the case with Desiring God, you may freely copy the material and give it to your friends so long as you do not alter it or charge for it. I believe they also want it to say something about Desiring God.org and John Piper.

I strongly recommend this as a valuable addition to your MP3 Library.

If you are interested then you can click here to look at the four options!

In Christ alone,

Saturday, November 26, 2005

Double Jeopardy by Owen

One popular argument was first articulated (that I know of) by John Owen, the famous puritan. He is one of the most difficult people to read but it is worth the exercise. The argument is labled by some as Double Jeopardy and can be found in The Death of Death in the Death of Christ. Here is the argument.

The Father imposed His wrath due unto, and the Son underwent punishment

1) All the sins of all men.
2) All the sins of some
men, or
3) Some of the sins of all men.

In which case it may be

1) That if the last be true, all men have some sins to answer for,
and so, none are saved.
2) That if the second be true, then Christ, in their stead suffered for all the sins of all the elect in the whole world,
and this is the truth.
3) But if the first be the case, why are not all men free from
the punishment due unto their sins?

You answer,
"Because of unbelief."

I ask,

Is this unbelief a sin, or is it not? If it
be, then Christ suffered the punishment due unto it, or He did not. If He did, why must that hinder them more than their other sins for which He died? If He did not, He did not die for all their sins!"

There are some counter-arguments to this argument and I may post those in my next entry. However, for the time being, this will serve as an introduction to A) Particular Atonement and B) John Owen.

In Christ alone,


Monday, November 21, 2005

Paul to the Ephesians Part 3

Ephesians 4

Therefore I, the prisoner of the Lord, implore you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling with which you have been called, 2 with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing tolerance for one another in love, 3 being diligent to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.

4 There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one hope of your calling; 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6 one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.

And He gave some as apostles, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as pastors and teachers, 12 for the equipping of the saints for the work of service, to the building up of the body of Christ; 13 until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a mature man, to the measure of the stature which belongs to the fullness of Christ. 14 As a result, we are no longer to be children, tossed here and there by waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, by craftiness in deceitful scheming; 15 but speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in all aspects into Him who is the head, even Christ, 16 from whom the whole body, being fitted and held together by what every joint supplies, according to the proper working of each individual part, causes the growth of the body for the building up of itself in love.

21 if indeed you have heard Him and have been taught in Him, just as truth is in Jesus, 22 that, in reference to your former manner of life, you lay aside the old self, which is being corrupted in accordance with the lusts of deceit, 23 and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 24 and put on the new self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.

25 Therefore, laying aside falsehood, SPEAK TRUTH EACH ONE of you WITH HIS NEIGHBOR, for we are members of one another. 26 BE ANGRY, AND yet DO NOT SIN; do not let the sun go down on your anger, 27 and do not give the devil an opportunity. 28 He who steals must steal no longer; but rather he must labor, performing with his own hands what is good, so that he will have something to share with one who has need. 29 Let no unwholesome word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear. 30 Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. 31 Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. 32 Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.

Sunday, November 20, 2005

Paul to the Ephesians Part 2

Chapter 2

11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "Uncircumcision " by the so-called "Circumcision," which is performed in the flesh by human hands-- 12 remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 14 For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, 15 by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, 16 and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity. 17 AND HE CAME AND PREACHED PEACE TO YOU WHO WERE FAR AWAY, AND PEACE TO THOSE WHO WERE NEAR; 18 for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 19 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God's household, 20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone, 21 in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, 22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit.

Chapter 3
3 that by revelation there was made known to me the mystery, as I wrote before in brief. 4 By referring to this, when you read you can understand my insight into the mystery of Christ, 5 which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 6 to be specific, that the Gentiles are fellow heirs and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel,

7 of which I was made a minister, according to the gift of God's grace which was given to me according to the working of His power. 8 To me, the very least of all saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unfathomable riches of Christ, 9 and to bring to light what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God who created all things; 10 so that the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known through the church to the rulers and the authorities in the heavenly places.

16 that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with power through His Spirit in the inner man, 17 so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; and that you, being rooted and grounded in love, 18 may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, 19 and to know the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God. 20 Now to Him who is able to do far more abundantly beyond all that we ask or think, according to the power that works within us, 21 to Him be the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen.

Friday, November 18, 2005

Paul to the Ephesians Part 1

Chapter 1
5 He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will, 6 to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved. 7 In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace 8 which He lavished on us.

11 also we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will, 12 to the end that we who were the first to hope in Christ would be to the praise of His glory.

Chapter 2
And you were dead in your trespasses and sins, 2 in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience. 3 Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 4 But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, 5 even when we were dead in our transgressions, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), 6 and raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, 7 so that in the ages to come He might show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. 8 For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; 9 not as a result of works, so that no one may boast. 10 For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them.

Wednesday, November 16, 2005

The Christmas Story: Has Everyone Been so Wrong?

As the holiday season draws near, one can expect to see many "Christmas Story" productions by local churches. Granted, we may very well see less this year than ever before due to our beloved friends over at the ACLU. Nevertheless, the Christmas story well be done across the country.
Occasionally the church has been guilty to holding to traditions, even when these contradict the teaching of the Scriptures. This is certainly not a new problem. The Pharisees were guilty when Jesus came on the scene. The Roman's were guilty on many accounts. I would say that as Protestants we are guilty with respect to the "Christmas Story".

An Evaluation of Luke 2:

First, Joseph and Mary were going to Bethlehem. This is very common knowledge, but a little background information goes a long way. Bethlehem was a very small town that is completely out of the way (at least 3 days journey from Judea). It can easily be concluded that there were not any Motel 6 or Holiday Inns that were packed from all of the visitors. A place like this would have absolutely no need for such accomodations. Mary and Joseph were not going down Hotel Road looking for a place to stay.

Second, they were traveling back to Jerusalem because he was of the house of David. Joseph would have had family here. One of the differences between ancient Jewish culture and our culture is the emphasis on family. In some senses, it may be equated to many Asian cultures of our time. People generally stayed in the same place, took care of their family, etc. Joseph would have certainly been returning to a city where he knew most, if not all, of the people.

Third, verse six: "
While they were there, the days were completed for her to give birth." Joseph and Mary did not arrive and give birth within 10 minutes. In fact, they did not even give birth the same night. Rather, they arrived and after an unspecified amount of days, Mary gave birth to Jesus.

Fourth, there is absolutely no mention of a stable. Jesus was not born in a stable. The reason this view has developed over time is that Jesus was placed in a "manger". This is where some history is in order. Extensive study has been done of late and scholars have basically concluded that Animals and People both lived inside of the same house. One end of the house would be the normal living quarters while the other would have steps leading down to where the Animals lived. The steps would go down about 4 feet so that the animals could live down there and then stick their necks up and drink out of the manger (which was up on the level of the living quarters. This lower portion (where the animals lived) had a gate so that they could be let out during the day and then at night they would return to the house for protection. So then, the typical Jewish house would have a place for animals that came up to about a 4-6ft wall that had mangers. There would then be steps that led up to the living part of the house.

Fifth, is the word that is translated "there is no room in the
inn". This is where English really hurts us. The Greek word is "Kataluma" and properly means "lodging place" or "guest room". As an example, the same author uses this same word in Luke 22:11: ""And you shall say to the owner of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"'

In light of all of this, we can now draft a somewhat more accurate Christmas story.

Joseph and Mary were returning to their small hometowm of Bethlehem. Since it was time for the Census, there was not any room in the guest room of their family's house. So rather than having a bedroom the two had to lodge in the open area of the house (similar to a modern Family Room or Living Room). After several days, Mary gave birth to her baby and used an emptied manger as a crib for her child.

Small differences? Maybe. If they are small then we should have no problem adjusting our Christmas presentations. However, I have a feeling that this tradition is impressed upon our minds and it will be hard to divorce ourselves from it. So then, the question remains: How committed are we to keeping the Scriptures in their proper place?

Tuesday, November 15, 2005


At Biola there was a Seminary Fair today. Several of the big name schools were out and about looking to recruit. I came away with about 4 pens and a host of resources. However, at the end of the day, I still feel no closer to knowing what school I want to attend. Here is a brief list of some of the schools that I am considering.

Westminster Theological Seminary (Picture on Right)

This school has fantastic faculty and is known for producing top-notch scholastics. The school holds very strictly to the Westminster Confession of Faith (which can be viewed here). The school seems to be very rigorous which is something that attracts me. One concern is that Westminster is located in Philadelphia (Cold and Far!) and they do not provide very many scholarships. The other concern is that I do not agree with the WCF/Presbyterians on baptism. Then again, there are very few schools that I would agree with entirely.

Westminster Seminary California

This Westminster is a cousin of the previous entry. This school does not have quite the faculty (although it is still excellent). WSCal is a good option if I am looking at Pastoral/Minsterial work. The advantage is that it is not too far away (San Diego area) and possibly more conservative than the larger school.

Theological Seminary

The Jackson, Mississippi and Orlando, Florida capuses both look appealing. The advantage here is that it is another solid reformed seminary. This isn't necessarily a top choice among the Reformed schools but it is certainly one that I will look into.

Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary

I have heard mixed reviews from this school. Several people have noted that the professors are a mixed bag with some being extremely good and others not as good. Probably this is a reality at most schools, but it may be moreso at this seminary. Nevertheless, I have heard many good things about GCTS so I will consider it as an option.

Talbot School of Theology

This school has solid faculty and is another great option for the pastoral route. Advantage is that I test out of a lot of units (from attending Biola) and that I know several of the professors already. One concern is the Dispensational Theology that is continuously pushed. However, Saucy and company have taken great strides towards the Reformed view.

Theological Seminary

Whenever considering Seminary, one must almost necessarily consider Dallas. Dallas puts out an amazing amount of quality scholarship every year. Nevertheless, if I were looking into a Dispensational Seminary then I would probably go to Talbot.

Wheaton College Graduate School

This is a big name school in the Evangelical world and definitely has an appeal. One concern is the lack of M.Div program (It is a graduate school and not a seminary). However, for the scholastic route this may not be a bad option. Wheaton has produced some top-notch scholars. However, it would seem that Talbot would be just as good without the distance.

Evangelical Divinity School

This school has the same Statement of Faith as my home church. It looks to have many of the benefits of Wheaton with the Divinity program. Nevertheless, this is probably not one of my top choices at all, despite the solid programs and respect in the evangelical world.

There are probably other possibilities, but at this point these are the schools that have caught my eye for one reason or another.

Monday, November 14, 2005

Jesus' Seeker Sensitive Sermon!

John 8:31 So Jesus was saying to those Jews who had believed Him, "If you continue in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine; 32 and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free." 33 They answered Him, "We are Abraham's descendants and have never yet been enslaved to anyone; how is it that You say, 'You will become free '?" 34 Jesus answered them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is the slave of sin. 35 "The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son does remain forever. 36 "So if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed. 37 "I know that you are Abraham's descendants; yet you seek to kill Me, because My word has no place in you. 38 "I speak the things which I have seen with My Father; therefore you also do the things which you heard from your father." 39 They answered and said to Him, "Abraham is our father." Jesus said to them, "If you are Abraham's children, do the deeds of Abraham. 40 "But as it is, you are seeking to kill Me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God; this Abraham did not do. 41 "You are doing the deeds of your father." They said to Him, "We were not born of fornication; we have one Father: God." 42 Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and have come from God, for I have not even come on My own initiative, but He sent Me. 43 "Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot hear My word. 44 "You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies. 45 "But because I speak the truth, you do not believe Me. 46 "Which one of you convicts Me of sin? If I speak truth, why do you not believe Me? 47 "He who is of God hears the words of God; for this reason you do not hear them, because you are not of God." 48 The Jews answered and said to Him, "Do we not say rightly that You are a Samaritan and have a demon?" 49 Jesus answered, "I do not have a demon; but I honor My Father, and you dishonor Me. 50 "But I do not seek My glory; there is One who seeks and judges. 51 "Truly, truly, I say to you, if anyone keeps My word he will never see death." 52 The Jews said to Him, "Now we know that You have a demon. Abraham died, and the prophets also; and You say, 'If anyone keeps My word, he will never taste of death.' 53 "Surely You are not greater than our father Abraham, who died? The prophets died too; whom do You make Yourself out to be?" 54 Jesus answered, "If I glorify Myself, My glory is nothing; it is My Father who glorifies Me, of whom you say, 'He is our God'; 55 and you have not come to know Him, but I know Him; and if I say that I do not know Him, I will be a liar like you, but I do know Him and keep His word. 56 "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad." 57 So the Jews said to Him, "You are not yet fifty years old, and have You seen Abraham?" 58 Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am." 59 Therefore they picked up stones to throw at Him, but Jesus hid Himself and went out of the temple.

Wow can you even imagine what that would look like.? He called them liars, sons of satan, not real descendents of Abraham, and even murderers by implication. Beyond that, he claims that they do not know God (remember this is the Pharisees and the Scribes) and even ascribes diety to himself (clear allusion to Exo 3:14). He alienated his audience, criticized them, and then claimed that they did not understand the message because of themselves! Wow! Let us never change the message to fit who we are speaking to; let us never dull truth to pander to our audience. Let us be bold men and women who follow in the example of our Lord. Granted, some may take this to the wrong extreme and think that we just exist to call people names like Jesus. Jesus did far more than that and a brief glance at scripture reveals such. However, if in our culture we are going to err one way or the other, I think we are far more likely to fall towards "tollerance" -our 11th commandment.

Friday, November 11, 2005

I am still figuring out exactly what I think of this open letter by Michael Spencer. He laments the fact that he made a decision so long ago to enter the ministry. He looks at some of the problems it has caused for himself, wife and children. While he presents many valid points and important warnings, the letter seems to leave you wanting to disagree with him on some points. In any case, it is a very transparent and humble piece by a fellow that I do not always agree with. It is certainly worth the long read. See With Regrets, All my Love

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

Reformers in need of Reforming

For those who receive TableTalk magazine from Ligonier Ministries, you know that this month's theme is "No Strings Atached: What Reformed Theology is Not". This edition does a decent job of looking at some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of Reformed soteriology. However, my favorite part of the edition is the three articles at the end which are exhortations, possibly even rebukes, for those who already hold to Reformed beliefs. The main point is that often the invalid criticisms launched at Calvinists are sadly validated by the way in which we live. I will include some of the portions I found most beneficial as well as some personal commentary:

The first article is by Kenneth Jones, Pastor from Greater Union Baptist church in Compton, CA and co-host of White Horse Inn Radio.
In "Truly Reformed" he argues that "on the whole there is no shortage of good preaching and teaching in Reformed circles." "In addition," he continues, "there are conferences, books and a host of other resources out there." However, he asks the piercing question: "Is reading and hearing enough?" James, inspired by God, warns his readers that if we hear without doing then we are merely deceiving ourselves. Jones makes the point that knowing why Arminians are wrong is never an excuse not to evangelize. For those who truly comprehend the doctrines of Grace, it should never be said that we do not evangelize. Proclaiming the truth around the world should be of utmost importance. Few could dare look at Edwards, Whitefield, Spurgeon, Lloyd-Jones, Packer, Kennedy, Piper, etc. and claim that "Calvinist don't think Evangelism is important". Yet, this is the very cry that is echoed every time this weighty matter is addressed. Possibly it is our own failures which are causing the confusion. Possibly this is a log in our eye that must be removed before we can surgically remove that speck.

The concluding article of this edition is by Albert Mohler Jr., President of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. His article, "Reforming our Mission" leaves the reader with this thought:
"Remember these witenesses the next time you hear that Reformed theology leads to a lessening of evangelistic commitment. Those who know that God saves and the purpose for which He saves, should be the most eager and faithful witnesses to see others come to faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Uncommitted to evangelism? That is what Reformed theology is not."
This is certainly said better than I could hope to muster so I will leave his words to speak for themselves.

My last concern is with personal piety. It is this very issue that led Wesley to vehemently oppose the doctrines of grace. Many have charged that Calvinist theology gives people a license to sin. While there is no truth to this claim, it is a claim that we should expect whenever Grace is boldly proclaimed. For example, the Apostle Paul in Romans shows the depravity of man and finally the grace of God. The 5th chapter of Romans ends with "Where sin abounds, grace abounds all the more". Calvinists preach the very same grace. However, Arminians then call it a license to sin. We should have expected this. Paul certainly did! He continues in chapter 6, "What shall we say then? Are we to continue to sin so that grace may abound? May it never be!" Martain Lloyd-Jones is known for saying that if we are never accused of preaching antinomianism (Grace as License for Sin) then we are not preaching true Grace.
Having said that, Calvinists still face this charge daily. Why? I would dare to suggest that possibly we know the indicative statements of Romans 6 so well (We have been united with Him in the likeness of his death, certainly we shll also be in His ressurection, Etc.) that we have forgotten the imperatives (and do not go on presenting the members of your body as sin, etc). Oh, how I charge us all with the same exhortation Paul gave many years ago: "Present your bodies as a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service of worship". We preach so passionately the doctrines of grace, as we should, for the glory of God, but it must never be that we forget to glorify God with our bodies.

In Christ alone,

Tuesday, November 08, 2005

Philippians - Selected quotations

Wow, is it any wonder why this short book is quoted so often? Simply amazing!

Chapter 1
6And I am sure of this, that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ.

9And it is my prayer that your love may abound more and more, with knowledge and all discernment, 10so that you may approve what is excellent, and so be pure and blameless for the day of Christ, 11filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God.

17What then? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed, and in that I rejoice.

21For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.

Chapter 2
5Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, 6who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7but made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. 8And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.

9Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Chapter 3
7But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ. 8Indeed, I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things and count them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ 9and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith-- 10that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death, 11that by any means possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead.

12Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect, but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own. 13Brothers, I do not consider that I have made it my own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead, 14I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus.

20But our citizenship is in heaven, and from it we await a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, 21who will transform our lowly body to be like his glorious body, by the power that enables him even to subject all things to himself.

Chapter 4
4Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, Rejoice.

6do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. 7And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.

11Not that I am speaking of being in need, for I have learned in whatever situation I am to be content. 12I know how to be brought low, and I know how to abound. In any and every circumstance, I have learned the secret of facing plenty and hunger, abundance and need. 13I can do all things through him who strengthens me.